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DIABETES MELLITUS OR DIABETES is a metabolic disorder in which the person has raised blood glucose levels(blood sugar). It may be due to either decreased insulin hormone production by the pancreatic gland  or if the body cells does not react properly to the insulin or both.


1. TYPE 1 DIABETES – It is “Insulin dependent diabetes” or “juvenile diabetes” where the body does not produce insulin. It is generally seen below the age of 40 yrs and especially in children. It  may be caused by genetic predisposition.

2. TYPE 2 DIABETES – In this type, the body cells fails to react to the insulin hormone produced(insulin resistance). It is the most common onset in the adults, about 90% of cases are seen worldwide.

3. GESTATIONAL DIABETES – It affects females mainly during pregnancy with high level of glucose in the blood. Gestational diabetes can be controlled by diet and exercise. If it is uncontrolled, medications are required. Diabetes can cause complications during childbirth, if untreated.


-Hereditary or genetic factor.

-Autoimmune factor.

-Lack of proper diet and exercise.





Increased thirst (polydipsia), increased frequency of urination (polyuria), increased hunger (polyphagia), hunger intolerance, weight loss, burning of soles, tingling and numbness of legs, fatigue, irritability, nausea, vomiting.


All types of Diabetes increase the risk of complications. The major complication is related to damage of the blood vessels. Diabetes retinopathy affects the blood vessels of retina of eye which results in visual disturbances. Diabetic neuropathy, if affects the nervous system which results in tingling, numbness, burning of the feet. Diabetic nephropathy which causes chronic kidney disease, loss of proteins in the urine. Cardiac diseases like coronary artery disease (angina or myocardial infarction).


-It can be diagnosed based on blood tests like Fasting blood glucose, Glucose tolerance test, fasting urine sugar levels.

-Hba1c is “Glycosylated hemoglobin” is one of the test which shows three months average blood glucose levels.